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亚太经合组织第二十三次领导人非正式会议宣言(中英全文)

  2015-11-19

  当地时间11月18日至19日,亚太经合组织(APEC)第二十三次领导人非正式会议在菲律宾马尼拉举行。会议发表《领导人宣言》,全文如下:

  亚太经合组织第二十三次领导人非正式会议宣言

  (2015年11月19日,菲律宾马尼拉)

  “打造包容性经济,建设更美好世界:亚太大家庭愿景”

  我们,亚太经合组织领导人,相聚马尼拉,讨论“打造包容性经济,建设更美好世界”这一主题,决心采取行动,全面实现我们的前任所确立的愿景,建设亚太地区稳定、融合和繁荣的大家庭,使我们的人民享有经济增长和技术进步带来的福祉。我们的不懈努力将为亚太地区的和平、稳定、发展和共同繁荣做出保证。

  面对最近发生的巴黎、贝鲁特等地区遭遇恐怖袭击,以及俄罗斯航班在西奈半岛因恐怖袭击失事,我们强烈谴责各种形式的恐怖主义行为。我们不能让恐怖主义威胁我们建立自由开放经济的信念。经济增长、繁荣和机遇是根除恐怖主义和极端主义存在土壤的最有效措施之一。我们强调国际社会团结合作打击恐怖主义的紧迫性和必要性。

  在我们相聚的此刻,全球增长依然不稳定,并继续低于预期。全球经济风险和不确定性依然存在,包括需求增长不足,金融市场波动和结构性问题等,都对实际和潜在增长造成影响。亚太经合组织各经济体仍保持着活力,但也面临增长前景方面的挑战。

  外部需求减弱突出了内需的重要性。快速变化的经济结构和竞争力要求我们挖掘新的增长驱动力,如旨在提高生产力的结构改革,服务业及服务贸易,投资自由化和便利化,基础设施投资,科技创新等,以实现更平衡和可持续的增长。

  我们谨记,尽管前所未有的经济增长令数百万人脱贫,本地区仍有数百万人处于贫困之中。我们呼吁加大力度,减少并消除贫困。我们承认,不平等会阻碍经济增长,减少不平等对于亚太地区的发展与繁荣至关重要。

  我们认识到扩大社会各行业和各阶层参与经济发展,特别是妇女、青年、残疾人、土著居民、低收入群体、中小微企业的参与,对于实现包容性增长有重要意义。我们强调,应注重发挥社会各界的能力,促进经济增长,并使其从中受益。

  我们继续团结一致、坚定不移地支持打造开放、可预见、基于规则和透明的贸易投资环境,创造有价值的经济机遇。这是实现可持续和包容性增长,创造有质量的就业,保持金融市场稳定的最佳途径。我们重申,共同致力于打造一个发展创新、增长联动、利益融合的亚太开放型经济。

  我们再次肯定以世界贸易组织为核心的多边贸易体制的价值,及其在国际贸易中的中心和首要地位。我们致力于加强基于规则、透明、非歧视、开放和包容性的多边贸易体制。为进一步落实这一承诺,我们决定在世界贸易组织成立20周年之际发表一份单独声明,对多边贸易体制和世界贸易组织第十届部长级会议表示支持。

  我们重申此前在货币和汇率政策方面的承诺。我们将避免竞争性贬值,反对一切形式的保护主义。

  我们再次承诺,到2020年实现茂物目标所规定的自由开放的贸易和投资,并最终实现亚太自贸区。我们赞赏高官们为确保区域贸易协定互补,加强多边贸易体制所做的努力。我们欢迎诸多亚太经合组织成员所采取的行动,履行相关手续,加入旨在降低跨境贸易成本的《世界贸易组织贸易便利化协定》。

  尽管完成目前的经济转型面临诸多不易,我们有信心通过高质量的经济增长,继续驱动地区及全球经济繁荣。

  为此,我们共同致力于:

  打造包容性经济

  一、支持全面和有雄心的结构改革,创造积极的经济、社会和环境收益,促进良好治理。

  (一)我们重申在未来实现强劲、平衡、可持续和包容增长,以创新为动力,并免受自然灾害和其他威胁的影响,同时促进性别平等。我们对“中等收入陷阱”风险保持警惕。

  (二)我们批准《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》,将制度建设、社会融合和环境影响列为优先领域,在2010年《亚太经合组织增长战略》的基础上,并考虑到2014年《亚太经合组织创新发展、经济改革与增长共识》中的承诺,对实现高质量的增长给予更多关注。我们指示高官们就亚太经合组织落实该战略的进展提交报告,供我们审议。

  (三)我们欢迎2010年《亚太经合组织增长战略》评估报告,特别是报告发现,亚太经合组织地区有3亿多人因发展中经济体的迅速增长而摆脱贫困。我们支持缩小发展差距并消除贫困的进一步努力。

  (四)我们赞赏落实《亚太经合组织结构改革新战略》的工作,并对《亚太经合组织新结构改革议程》表示欢迎。推进结构改革对于提高经济效率和生产率至关重要。我们认识到,要让社会各阶层都分享增长的收益,还有许多工作等待我们完成。因此,我们支持各经济体探索新的增长领域,包括通过推进改革,改善监管环境,鼓励发明创新,进一步发展服务业。

  (五)我们欢迎落实营商便利化倡议取得的进展,确认实现《营商便利化行动计划(2016-2018)》提出的崭新宏伟目标,即到2018年在创业、获得建筑许可、跨境贸易、获取信贷、履行合同这五个现有优先领域内,将营商便利化程度提高10%。我们欢迎制定具体实施计划,引导我们实现这一目标。

  (六)我们重申致力于落实2030年可持续发展议程。这一议程为未来15年的全球发展规划了详尽、全面和规模宏大的框架,确保我们消除贫困、建设包容和可持续未来的努力能让所有人受益。我们也重申致力于落实《亚的斯亚贝巴行动议程》。这一议程为各经济体制定政策,吸引和发掘各种金融资源,实现可持续发展目标提供了路线图。

  (七)我们鼓励采取进一步措施和可行倡议,落实2013年倡议,推进农村发展和减贫,促进可持续和包容性增长的产品贸易。

  (八)我们认识到腐败阻碍经济的可持续发展。我们同意打击非法经济所造成的危害,在经济体、市场和供应链中弘扬正气。我们重申致力于实现公开而负责的治理,推进各经济体在遣返引渡腐败官员、追赃、定罪、预防腐败等方面的国际合作。我们支持亚太经合组织反腐执法部门网络推进务实反腐合作,欢迎《关于保护反腐官员的宿务宣言》。

  (九)我们欢迎亚太经合组织成员为反恐所做的努力,包括开展能力建设项目阻断恐怖主义融资,通过提前评估旅客的危险性等措施,阻止恐怖分子跨境流动。我们进一步鼓励经济体全面落实《亚太经合组织反恐和安全贸易战略》,继续采取集体和单独行动,并分享最佳实践,确保基础设施、旅行、供应链和金融系统的安全和不受恐怖活动的影响。

  二、深化金融市场,减小金融风险

  (一)我们认识到,尽管已取得许多进展,但仍有数百万人无法享有可靠的金融服务,进而无法获得足够资本投资其未来发展。我们强调扩大金融包容性和普及金融知识能够减少贫困,使人民以更低成本获得资本和融资服务。

  (二)我们认识到,推进金融一体化,逐步实现金融服务和资本账户自由化,同时向供应链中的中小微企业和其他商业机构提供应有的保护和更多融资机会,将促进本地区贸易和投资增长。

  (三)我们欢迎《宿务行动计划》,赞赏财长们制定这一多年期路线图的努力。该计划包含一系列成果和倡议,目的是在金融领域建设更加融合、透明、有活力和互联互通的亚太大家庭。我们重视开展宏观经济合作,包括分享在宏观审慎政策框架方面的经验,尽可能减小系统风险,增强亚太经合组织地区金融稳定。

  促进中小微企业参与区域和全球市场

  三、创造贸易环境,特别是针对中小微企业,促使其能够有效应对商品和服务的生产和交付,促进包容性发展。

  (一)我们生活在一个相互联结的世界之中,许多商品和服务不再在一个地点生产,而是跨境企业共同合作的结果,这对消费者有利,也有利于创造就业机会和促进发展。所有企业无论大小,都要能够接触到各处存在的商机。我们需要充分利用全球价值链,鼓励更多参与,提升附加值。我们将采取全面有效措施,包括平衡的知识产权体系和能力建设,鼓励竞争、企业家精神和创新。

  (二)我们强调中小微企业参与全球商业实现包容性增长的重要意义,并将采取行动协助其参与。我们认识到,通过创造就业机会、提高生产力和实现规模效应,国际化的中小微企业能对减贫作出巨大贡献。然而,中小微企业承担着不成比例的营商成本,尤其是繁琐的规则和规定。我们需要解决中小微企业国际化和融入全球价值链的障碍。为此,我们通过了《中小微企业全球化长滩岛行动纲领》,并指示部长们实施纲领所包含的相关行动,并在2020年向我们报告其进展情况。

  (三)我们欢迎《亚太经合组织怡朗倡议:不断增长的全球中小微企业的包容性发展》,支持建立亚太经合组织中小微企业市场,提供商业机会,并加强与公共和私营机构的合作,支持中小微企业发展。我们也欢迎提升本地区全球价值链抗风险合作所取得的进展。

  (四)我们认识到中小微企业融资是推动中小微企业扩张、国际化和提高生产率的重要因素。我们欢迎私营部门和国际金融机构通过《宿务行动计划》框架下新成立的基础设施融资发展网络,与公共部门开展合作。我们强调提升中小微企业在防灾、金融危机和其他突发事件中抗风险能力的重要意义。我们认识到,以向中小微企业持续运营提供信用担保、加强公共和私营部门机构合作为内容的公共财政,对中小微企业应对挑战发挥着重要作用。

  (五)我们强调,发展互联网和数字经济将提供实现创新、可持续、包容和安全增长的机遇,促进互联互通。这将使企业特别是中小微企业参与全球价值链,通过新商业模式创造出真正的全球市场,接触到更广泛的消费群体,进行商品、服务、资本和思想的交流。关于中小微企业的发展,我们致力于继续推动跨境隐私保护,并保护消费者利益。我们指示官员们推进工作,促进互联网和数字经济。我们同时指示官员们实施促进数字贸易实现包容性增长的工作计划,并作为下一代贸易和投资潜在议题。

  建设可持续和有活力的大家庭

  四、建设可持续和抗灾的经济体

  (一)我们认识到本地区位于环太平洋火山地震带,尤其脆弱并容易遭受灾害。我们面临着台风、地震、火山爆发、海平面上升、流行病等众多风险,对人口稠密的城市影响更大。日益频繁、幅度更大、范围更广的自然灾害成为我们面对的 “新常态”,也可能撕裂正趋于一体化和相互关联的生产链和供应链。

  (二)我们欢迎并接受亚太经合组织减灾风险框架,增加各经济体在“新常态”下适应和有效应对灾害的能力,支持包容和可持续发展。通过减灾框架,我们将减小损失,确保社区战胜困境并重建。我们指示部长们2016年制定行动计划,在现有基础上优化商业连续性规划,加强预警系统,搜救,灾后重建,促进适当捐赠,并加强能力建设。我们欢迎《亚太经合组织紧急情况运输人道主义物资和设备》倡议,更好挽救生命和维护民生。我们也注意到《2015年至2030年仙台减灾框架》。

  (三)鉴于一些经济体由于自然灾害频发,造成沉重的财政负担,我们注意到需要发展创新灾害风险融资和保险机制,并欢迎财政部长们通过宿务行动计划建立金融弹性的努力。

  (四)我们要求首席科学顾问小组与其他亚太经合组织工作机制加强沟通协调,进一步研究突发事件预防措施并提出科学建议。

  (五)我们认识到,传染性疾病检测和预防合作是抗灾能力的一部分。我们欢迎《健康亚太2020年路线图》的制定。我们欢迎亚太经合组织与相关全球机制加强合作,加强传染性疾病控制,支持本地区血液供应安全培训网络。

  (六)基于我们建设可持续发展大家庭的目标,我们坚定承诺在今年12月巴黎气候大会实现平衡、有雄心、持久和有活力的气候变化协议。因此,我们重申2035年将总能源强度降低45%,到2030年将可再生能源在地区能源构成中的比例提升一倍的期望目标,在亚太地区实现可持续、有韧性的能源开发。

  (七)我们欢迎改进并在中期逐步淘汰鼓励浪费性消费的低效化石燃料补贴,同时认识到需要向切实需求人群提供基本能源服务的重要性。我们欢迎目前为止的工作进展,也深知继续付出更大努力的必要。我们赞赏自愿接受低效化石燃料补贴的同行评审的经济体。我们欢迎以分享最佳实践,促进能力建设,朝着这一目标取得进一步进展并正在实施的倡议。

  (八)我们重申能源韧性对推动能源安全和可持续发展,为人们提供能源的重要性。我们赞赏建立能源韧性工作组,增强亚太地区电力基础设施质量和亚太经合组织可持续能源中心相关倡议。在向低碳经济过渡的过程中,我们将探索生物燃料、作为基荷电源的民用核能、先进的煤炭技术、液化天然气、太阳能、风能和海洋能源技术。我们赞赏亚太地区朝着多元、灵活和综合性天然气市场目标所付出的努力。

  (九)我们强调通过提高可持续农业、食品安全、粮食安全和营养,在本地区建立有活力的大家庭。为此,我们指示部长们在海洋和沿海资源,鱼类减损和农业企业发展等领域,开展亚太经合组织关于粮食安全蓝色经济行动规划的高级别政策对话。我们支持亚太经合组织食品安全合作论坛及其培训学院合作伙伴网络。我们鼓励亚太经合组织2020年粮食安全路线图的实施进展,实现亚太经合组织粮食安全的目标。

  (十)我们认识到林业对支持社区发展、保护生物多样性及减缓和适应气候变化的重要作用。我们重申《悉尼宣言》到2020年将本地区所有类型森林覆盖率增加至少2千万公顷,推动可持续森林管理、养护和再生,并打击非法采伐及相关贸易。我们欢迎亚太经合组织2020年森林覆盖目标进展评估报告。

  (十一)基于我们前些年的承诺,我们将通过进一步减少非法供应、运输和需求的行动,打击野生动物的贩运和相关腐败;加强国内和国际执法,强化立法框架和其他刑事司法手段;各经济体将严肃对待野生动物贩卖犯罪行为,酌情加强野生动物执法网络合作、跨境执法合作及其他互动。

  五、通过城镇化提升增长

  (一)我们的城市是创意和创新的潜力中心,为数十亿人提供就业机会和生计。我们强调合理规划和完善基础设施对可持续城市发展的重要意义。因此,我们欢迎高官们讨论亚太经合组织地区快速城市化带来的挑战,包括以创新方式处理垃圾管理和与水相关的问题。

  (二)我们将继续致力于发展环保、节能、低碳和以人为本的新型城镇化模式。我们赞赏各成员落实《亚太经合组织共建亚太城镇化伙伴关系倡议》所作的努力。就此,我们欢迎中国2016年举办亚太经合组织城镇化高层论坛的倡议。我们鼓励在城市建设中实现高效节能和低碳发展的工作,包括落实亚太经合组织低碳示范城镇项目,在建筑物中使用符合绿色标准的产品,以及落实能源智能社区倡议。

  (三)我们认识到本地区人口结构变迁,包括人口老龄化和城镇化进程,对本地区粮食系统产生深远影响。我们将加快努力,增强本地区粮食供应安全,促进可持续农业和水资源管理,通过加强城市、农村和偏远地区互联互通,促进投资和基础设施发展,减少食品价值链中粮食损耗和浪费,增加粮食可及度。

  (四)与此同时,我们认识到农村不应该滞后于本地区经济社会发展。在这方面,我们决心作出努力,共享农村发展经验,加强农村社区建设,全面实施以消除贫困和提高农村社区福利为重点的战略。

  (五)我们赞赏建立安全、可靠、灵活、高效、可持续交通系统,以及在交通领域促进创新的努力。我们将努力实现包容性流动和有韧性的全球供应链。我们指示高官们继续就互联互通交通网络加强合作。

  投资人力资源开发

  六、努力扩大亚太人民参与并从经济增长中获益的手段

  (一)1996年,我们通过经济技术合作框架,希望确保所有亚太经合组织成员全面参与并获益于开放的贸易环境。我们高兴地看到各工作组及论坛在加强能力建设和跨领域合作方面的努力及取得的进展。我们强调,作为大家庭,不能仅仅是一部分成员从全球市场连接和一体化中获益,而另一部分成员无法实现其发展潜力。

  (二)我们强调,为有效推动本地区下一阶段经济增长,我们需要继续加强人力资源投资,培养产业界亟需的技能。当前,技术的运用迅速而普遍,亚太民众,特别是妇女和青年,不仅要拥有科学、技术和创新技能,还应具备适应能力、创新能力和活力,我们要求官员与商界,教育和培训提供者,就业服务机构和公民社会密切合作,了解产业界的技能需求,据此开发教育和培训项目,提高技能、发挥潜质,增强人们在劳动力市场的竞争力。

  (三)我们强调人力资源开发和人员互联互通的协同效应,我们将继续加强跨境教育合作。在2020年前实现亚太经合组织范围内每年100万跨境学生交流目标的落实工作取得了早期进展,我们对此表示欢迎。我们也注意到人力资源开发与信息与通讯技术进步密切相关,互促共进。

  (四)我们将继续采取切实、可量化的政策行动加强妇女经济赋权,包括扩大女性在领导层的比例,在经济中的赋权和全面参与。我们呼吁在亚太经合组织相关工作领域大力促进性别平等和女性赋权,包括将妇女经济数据指标表作为设定目标的工具。

  (五)我们欢迎亚太经合组织残疾人经济赋权合作取得的进展,并鼓励成员经济体加强协作促进包容性发展。

  (六)我们认识到卫生体系对促进人力资源开发和包容性增长的重要性,将在2016年继续开展工作,应对健康恶化带来的财政和经济后果。

  推动区域经济一体化

  七、全面系统地推进融合的大家庭建设

  (一)我们重申全面系统地推进亚太自贸区进程的承诺,将其作为推动区域经济一体化主要手段。我们赞赏《亚太经合组织推动实现亚太自贸区北京路线图》的落实进展,包括“实现亚太自贸区有关问题的联合战略研究”,信息共享机制和第二期亚太自贸区能力建设行动计划等工作的实施。我们指示部长及官员继续上述工作,期待2016年在秘鲁聚首时看到联合战略研究的成果和相关建议。

  (二)我们重申,亚太自贸区应是一个全面的自贸协定,建立在本地区现有自贸安排基础上。我们重申在《实现亚太自贸区的可能路径》中明确的愿景,亚太自贸区应当是高质量的,并且涵盖下一代贸易投资议题。我们注意到近期本地区自贸协定的发展和亚太自贸区可能路径取得的进展,包括跨太平洋战略经济伙伴关系协定谈判达成协议,我们鼓励早日完成区域全面经济伙伴关系谈判。

  (三)我们重申2012年作出的在今年底前将亚太经合组织环境产品清单实施关税降至5%或以下的承诺。我们祝贺顺利履行承诺的经济体,强烈敦促尚未落实的经济体加倍努力,以完成年底前降税的目标。

  (四)我们欢迎《亚太经合组织推动全球价值链发展合作战略蓝图》实施进展,指示官员们继续推动此项工作。

  (五)我们重申实现无缝、融合、创新、互联的亚太的目标。我们欢迎落实《亚太经合组织互联互通蓝图2015-2025》,在硬件、软件和人员互联互通三大支柱领域取得的进展。我们将采取进一步行动确保蓝图的落实,提高亚太地区及次区域互联互通水平。

  (六)我们赞赏有助于改善本地区互联互通和基础设施倡议的落实进展,以及解决相关融资瓶颈倡议的进展。我们鼓励进一步加强倡议间协作,推动区域经济一体化和亚太共同发展。

  (七)我们强调投资高质量的基础设施和互联互通对实现亚太大家庭愿景至关重要。我们欢迎宿务行动计划确定的相关倡议,包括在基础设施建设中推广公私合作,通过资本市场发掘长期基础设施投资,在城市开发和区域互联互通过程中加强包容性基础设施建设。

  八、发展服务业,促进经济增长和包容

  (一)我们认识到,国际服务贸易将促进商业活动,降低成本,激励创新,推动竞争和生产力,丰富消费者选择。服务贸易还将创造就业,提高本土服务供应商水准,提高其全球市场竞争力,使整体经济受益。考虑到有众多中小企业从事服务业,处理好服务业相关问题是实现包容性增长目标的前提。

  (二)基于上述原因,我们批准亚太经合组织服务业合作框架,希望所有民众都能受益于并促进高质量增长。我们指示官员在2016年制定战略性、长期的服务业竞争力路线图,确定一系列各方赞同的2025年应实现的具体目标。我们赞赏与制造业相关服务等倡议。

  加强协作

  九、与利益相关方携手应对共同挑战

  (一)考虑到亚太的多样性,我们的成就充分说明,合作能有力推动区域经济一体化和实现共同繁荣。在以往成就的基础上,我们决心在经济体之间、同广大利益相关方一道进一步加强协作。我们重申有必要采取充分协调、全政府参与的方式进行规则制定,依靠开放和包容的公众咨商程序,并加强本土和国际广大利益相关方的参与。

  (二)我们欢迎与亚太经合组织工商咨询理事会、太平洋经济合作理事会、国际和地区组织、私营部门、地方政府、公民社会、学术界、中小微企业、妇女、青年、残疾人、产业专家加强协作,进行建设性对话,从而找到当前挑战的应对之策,建设更美好包容的世界。

  十、积极支持部长、亚太经合组织进程、各委员会和论坛的工作

  (一)我们批准2015年亚太经合组织部长联合声明,赞赏部长和官员们的工作,他们的努力在专业部长会议、高级别政策对话、财长进程,高官会下的委员会和工作组及相关机制的成果中得到了体现。

  (二)我们指示部长级官员根据本宣言及此前领导人会议宣言精神,继续开展工作,落实2015年专业部长会议和高级别政策对话成果文件的相关建议、项目、行动计划。

  (三)我们赞赏相关成员向亚太经合组织基金捐款,建立亚太自贸区和全球价值链、经济创新发展改革与增长、互联互通和矿业子基金,并自愿向发展中经济体成员提供培训机会。我们期待实现资源与工作重点更好的对接。

  技术进步、城镇化、贸易与投资自由化便利化以及互联互通促进了区域经济一体化,使我们生活日益紧密连接。为共同命运而奋斗,我们责无旁贷。尽管面临挑战,只要我们秉承建设面向未来的亚太伙伴关系的理念,坚持共同发展、繁荣和进步的目标,发扬相互尊重、互信、包容、合作共赢的精神,并为之共同努力,亚太地区的前景将是一片光明。

  我们认识到亚太经合组织是一个持续发展的进程,确保议程的延续性对于亚太经合组织至为重要。我们感谢菲律宾在往届亚太经合组织东道主确立愿景和取得成果基础上的出色领导。

  我们期待2016年在秘鲁聚首,承诺与2017至2022年的亚太经合组织会议东道主越南、巴布亚新几内亚、智利、马来西亚、新西兰、泰国密切协作。我们欢迎韩国申办2025年亚太经合组织会议。

  附件一:亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略

  一、我们亚太经合组织领导人,重申对于2010年《亚太经合组织领导人增长战略》的承诺。我们认识到这一战略依然发挥作用,引领亚太经合组织通过贸易投资自由化和便利化实现地区繁荣的根本目标。

  二、今年,我们在马尼拉通过了期限至2020年的《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》,对高质量增长的重要性给予更大关注,以此重申我们对亚太经合组织地区实现平衡、包容、可持续、创新和安全增长的热切期望。

  加强2010年《增长战略》以应对新挑战

  三、我们认识到亚太经合组织地区对全球经济增长继续做出重要贡献。我们强调贸易投资自由化和便利化仍是本地区经济增长和发展的核心动力。加强高质量增长并保持其活力,需要亚太经合组织成员更多协调一致的努力。

  四、我们认识到全球经济仍面临重大挑战,并注意到本地区的增长依旧不强劲、不平衡。亚太地区正面临如下挑战:(一)金融市场的潜在波动;(二)日益增加的不平等;(三)硬件基础设施方面的差距;(四)对于鼓励创新、获得更多技术的需求;(五)对环境问题的关切,包括气候变化的影响;(六)粮食安全和农业可持续管理。我们支持亚太经合组织财政部长为强化本地区经济增长和金融稳定而开展的工作。

  五、我们欢迎全球范围内促进经济增长的努力,包括二十国集团和联合国在该领域的既有工作,以及新近公布的《2030年可持续发展议程》。我们重申亚太经合组织致力于对上述努力发挥补益作用,应对可持续经济增长所面临的挑战。《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》将推动2010年《亚太经合组织领导人增长战略》与《2030年可持续发展议程》更好地协同共进。

  《增长战略》及相关倡议

  六、2010年《增长战略》的各项目标都包含行动议程。我们欢迎对亚太经合组织成员落实上述行动议程的进展进行评估。尽管亚太经合组织地区就落实该战略各项目标均取得进展,但很多工作仍有待完成,特别是要确保已有成果能继续保持并得到扩展。我们要求亚太经合组织各下属机构在各自战略计划的指导下,继续为实现2010年《增长战略》以及2015年《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》的终极目标做贡献。

  七、我们批准涵盖包容性增长、创新和服务业的《亚太经合组织新结构改革议程》。该议程建立在2010年批准的《亚太经合组织结构改革新战略》基础上,致力于帮助各经济体实现高质量增长并增强活力。它鼓励各经济体在优先领域进行结构改革,并为此开展能力建设和技术合作,对落实结构改革的政府官员进行培训。

  八、2014年我们也批准了《亚太经合组织经济创新发展、改革与增长共识》,致力于在以下五个方面开展更紧密的合作:(一)经济改革;(二)新经济;(三)创新增长;(四)包容性支持;(五)城镇化。我们重申在加速改革创新和探索新增长点方面的承诺。我们注意到该共识包含了《增长战略》五大目标下的政策行动,是落实该战略的强力支撑。

  2015年《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》

  九、《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》以2010年《增长战略》为基础,旨在加强并维系高质量增长,其关键问责领域包括制度建设、社会融合与环境影响。没有这些领域的工作,我们无法维系高质量的增长。这些关键问责领域的工作也旨在为落实2010年《增长战略》的五大属性提供更多动力,并使2010年《增长战略》与《2030年可持续发展议程》相一致。

  十、我们同意在与上述关键问责领域直接相关或客观上起促进作用的方面加强合作:

  (一)制度建设

  制度对于经济增长和发展有重要影响,因为它会决定社会关键经济行为主体的动机,特别是影响硬件、人力资本和科技方面的投资以及生产方式;

  我们认识到不同的发展程度和经济水平会影响制度建设的优先领域。一些较为重要的经济制度包括:1、促进法律确定性、降低营商成本的基于规则的经济;2、以健全公共机构和监管制度为支撑的市场经济;3、能有效调节储蓄、并存在有效监管体系促进金融稳定的深度金融市场;4、以股东为导向的公司治理体系;5、支持贸易投资自由化和便利化的机制;6、能根据市场需求调配劳动力并保护劳工福利的劳动力市场。

  制度建设领域的行动议程应考虑不同经济体发展水平的差异,体现多轨多速的特点。

  (二)社会融合

  我们视社会融合为实现经济增长和发展的目标与手段。我们认识到全社会团结一致的作用,以消除社会排斥和边缘化,营造归属感,增进信任,为其成员提供上升空间,并促进所有社会成员的福祉。

  在有凝聚力的社会里,公共政策往往能更有效地减少贫困,实现更稳定的增长。反之则会对减少不平等的财政政策的有效实施造成阻碍。社会凝聚也能降低交易成本,即完成经济交换所需的成本,如收集信息、沟通交流、履行合同的成本。最后,社会凝聚能推动集体行动,鼓励不同个体为共同目标开展合作,从而促进增长。

  (三)环境影响

  应对气候变化,包括采取措施减少温室气体排放,增加碳封存,以及适应气候变化带来的影响。减排措施将鼓励各经济体向低碳社会发展。同时,我们强调需加强防灾准备并降低灾害风险,以适应气候变化。这一适应过程涉及多种战略,包括对科技、抗灾基础设施和基于生态系统的调整进行投资。适应和减缓气候变化的措施对于农林渔业和工业化政策有重要影响。我们重申2010年领导人在《增长战略》中的呼吁,发展资源集约型经济,推动发展低碳而有活力的社会。我们继续鼓励新型绿色产业和绿色就业。

  私营部门的作用

  十一、我们认识到私营部门在经济增长和发展中的重要作用,特别是在实现某些关键性增长方面,它们孕育创新,创造就业,推动企业践行社会责任。我们鼓励私营部门参与建立一种各领域动员、全社会参与的方式,确保有活力和高质量的增长。

  落实

  十二、基于我们在2010年《增长战略》中的承诺,并考虑到亚太经合组织各下属机构在过去及当前有关倡议中的投入,我们决心落实《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》。我们批准该战略的关键问责领域作为不断改进的文件列入附录。我们致力于通过经验分享和能力建设,支持各经济体根据关键问责领域落实该战略。

  十三、我们指示高官们委托亚太经合组织政策支持小组在2020年报告亚太经合组织各项促增长工作的影响,并向领导人报告落实《亚太经合组织加强高质量增长战略》的进展,供其审议。领导人届时可考虑该战略的未来方向。

  附件二:亚太经合组织服务业合作框架

  我们,亚太经合组织领导人,于2015年11月19日相聚在马尼拉,重申我们实现亚太经合组织地区包容性增长的承诺。我们认识到服务业在实现这一目标中的重要作用。

  服务业在我们经济中占据主要地位,提供了高质量就业和新增长路径。高效而有竞争力的服务业可使总体经济受益。

  我们承认国际服务贸易可促进技术和管理知识的转移,激发创新,鼓励竞争,提高生产力,促使本土服务供应商提高标准,降低成本,为消费者提供更多服务选项。

  认识到服务业发展包括实现高效提供服务需要一项战略性举措,鉴此,我们批准以下《亚太经合组织服务业合作框架》:

  推进服务业议程

  一、《茂物领导人宣言》规划了亚太经合组织长远愿景,制定了不迟于2020年实现亚太地区自由开放的贸易和投资的目标。作为落实上述愿景和目标的组成部分,我们认识到推进本地区服务业合作的重要性。

  二、我们重视亚太经合组织各下属机构迄今在服务业领域所做工作。这些努力为落实《亚太经合组织领导人增长战略》、《亚太经合组织互联互通蓝图》以及《亚太经合组织促进全球价值链发展与合作战略蓝图》作出了重要贡献。

  三、我们欢迎第二届亚太经合组织结构改革部长级会议成果以及会议对服务业的重视。

  四、我们赞赏亚太经合组织在服务贸易与投资领域的工作,如《服务业行动计划》、《亚太经合组织跨境服务贸易原则》和《服务贸易准入条件数据库》。我们也认识到《制造相关服务业行动计划》、《环境产品与服务工作计划》、《环境服务行动计划》和亚太经合组织环境产品与服务公私伙伴关系的成立对于亚太经合组织当前在服务业领域工作的重大贡献。

  五、我们探索了进一步深化跨机构服务业合作的途径。2015年亚太经合组织经济委员会、亚太经合组织服务业小组和太平洋经济合作委员会共同主办会议,探讨规制改革和服务业合作。由印度尼西亚于2013年发起的服务业公私部门对话则通过与亚太经合组织工商咨询理事会和太平洋经济合作委员会合作,扩大了其对话基础。这些活动强调聚焦服务业合作的重要意义,分享规制经验及其面临的挑战,提出根据亚太经合组织各经济体不同条件提高服务业竞争力的看法。

  六、我们认识到服务的提供方式正迅速发生变化,如通过数字贸易来进行。为促进本地区的服务贸易和投资,亚太经合组织需要进一步深化其在服务业方面的工作,并建立良好势头。

  愿景

  七、我们同意为亚太经合组织服务业的发展设立长期愿景。

  八、回顾1994年“茂物目标”,我们决心通过下述合作原则加强我们在服务业领域的工作:

  实现符合世界贸易组织原则的自由开放的服务贸易和投资;

  开展透明和更有效的沟通;

  在亚太经合组织机制内部以及与其他利益相关方开展合作与接触;

  加强人力和制度方面能力建设并提高发展中经济体的参与度,从而增强服务业竞争力;

  采取跨行业以及有各行业特色的措施。

  九、根据1995年《大阪行动议程》、2000年《服务业工作政策框架》和2009年《亚太经合组织跨境服务贸易原则》,并考虑到各经济体的实际情况,我们申明遵照下述战略方向的重要性:

  保持法律、法规及行政程序的透明;

  逐步减少对服务贸易和投资的限制,包括减少不必要的本地化要求;

  对本土和外国服务供应商采取非歧视待遇;

  采取良好的规制实践和有效的竞争政策;

  促进服务供应商和商务人士流动;

  支持能力建设活动,以增强各经济体服务业竞争力。

  十、我们相信《亚太经合组织服务业合作框架》将在落实茂物目标过程中发挥关键作用,为亚太经合组织服务业领域的工作提供共同的战略方向,并增强其连贯性。《亚太经合组织服务业合作框架》将确保涉及诸多亚太经合组织下属机构和利益相关方的服务业议程保持活力,并能对各亚太经合组织经济体的经济、市场和科技发展做出积极响应。

  未来发展方向

  十一、我们同意在2016年制定一项战略性和长期的《亚太经合组织服务业竞争力路线图》,确立一系列相互协调的行动,以及彼此同意的、在2025年前实现的目标。在起草该路线图的过程中,将先讨论路线图的构成要素,再考虑具体措施和彼此同意的目标。路线图将,但不限于:

  建立在亚太经合组织服务业领域迄今工作基础之上;

  促进并增强亚太经合组织跨机构对话与合作,如联合会议、项目及倡议等;

  通过定期开展服务业公私部门对话,与亚太经合组织工商咨询理事会、太平洋经济合作委员会及其他利益相关方紧密合作;

  通过亚太经合组织服务业虚拟知识中心(就亚太经合组织服务业相关政策和项目分享信息和最佳实践的虚拟知识平台)拓展多利益相关方的参与度;

  鼓励就良好规制实践开展交流,推动实施有效的竞争政策;

  寻求用更好的做法获得服务业相关统计数据,增加采用服务业规制环境指标的亚太经合组织经济体数量,包括视情参考其他国际组织(如经济合作与发展组织)现有相关指标,探讨制定亚太经合组织指标;

  通过亚太经合组织工作组和委员会,定期组织服务业监管者,负责贸易、投资和竞争政策的官员和私营部门开展讨论;

  借助与其他地区性和全球性组织的伙伴关系落实路线图,如世界贸易组织、联合国机构、国际贸易中心、经济合作与发展组织、东盟和东亚经济研究所、亚洲开发银行、美洲开发银行和世界银行等,并避免与现有倡议重复,同时确保与现有倡议的连贯性。

  十二、《亚太经合组织服务业合作框架》的预期成果如下:

  增加亚太经合组织经济体的服务业增值能力;

  培育亚太经合组织经济体服务业的全球竞争力;

  通过提高硬件、软件和人员交流的互联互通,拓展亚太经合组织经济体服务贸易和投资;

  提高所有商业部门,特别是中小微型企业对全球价值链的参与;

  促使亚太经合组织及本区域内人民享有更广、更高效、更多样化的服务;

  促进就业和增长,同时推进社会包容和人的发展;

  为实现《亚太经合组织领导人增长战略》确定的包容、创新、平衡、安全与可持续的发展目标提供更多途径。

  十三、我们要求部长和高官们通过各委员会和工作组,尤其是服务业小组,在亚太经合组织各项长期和战略规划中主流化本框架。

  十四、最后,我们指示高官们制定相关机制,从2016年开始落实《亚太经合组织服务业合作框架》。

  

  

  2015 Leaders' Declaration

  The 23rd APEC Ecomomic Leaders’ Declaration - Building Inclusive Economies, Building a Better World: A Vision for an Asia-Pacific Community

  

  

  

  We, the Leaders of APEC, met in Manila under the theme of ‘Building Inclusive Economies, Building a Better World,’ determined to take action to fully realize the vision laid down by our predecessors of a stable, integrated, and prosperous community in the Asia-Pacific, in which all our people can enjoy the benefits of economic growth and technological progress. Our enduring commitment will underwrite the peace, stability, development, and common prosperity of the Asia-Pacific.

  Under the shadow cast by the terrorist attacks in Paris, Beirut, and against Russian aircraft over the Sinai, and elsewhere, we strongly condemn all acts, methods, and practices of terrorism in all their forms and manifestations. We will not allow terrorism to threaten the fundamental values that underpin our free and open economies. Economic growth, prosperity, and opportunity are among the most powerful tools to address the root causes of terrorism and radicalization. We stress the urgent need for increased international cooperation and solidarity in the fight against terrorism.

  We met at a time when global growth is uneven and continues to fall short of expectation. Risks and uncertainties remain in the global economy, including inadequate demand growth, financial volatility, and structural problems weighing on actual and potential growth. While APEC economies have remained resilient, they face challenges in boosting growth prospects.

  Weakening external demand growth highlights the importance of promoting domestic demand. The rapidly changing structures and competitiveness of our economies necessitate that we develop new drivers of growth, such as productivity-enhancing structural reform, services and trade in services, investment liberalization and facilitation, infrastructure investment, science, technology and innovation, that lead to more balanced and sustainable outcomes.

  We are mindful that despite the unprecedented economic growth that has lifted millions of people out of poverty, it continues to be a reality for millions of others in our region. We call for more intensive efforts for its reduction and eradication. We also acknowledge that inequality acts as a brake on economic growth and that reducing it is essential to spurring development and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific.

  We recognize the significance of enabling the full participation of all sectors and segments of our society, especially women, youth, people with disabilities, indigenous peoples, low-income groups, and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), to achieving inclusive growth. We underscore the importance of empowering them with the ability to contribute to and benefit from future growth.

  We remain united and steadfast in supporting an open, predictable, rules-based, and transparent environment for trade and investment that enables meaningful access to economic opportunities. This provides the best means to deliver sustained and inclusive growth, quality job creation, and financial market stability. We reaffirm the commitment to jointly build an open economy in the Asia-Pacific that is based on innovative development, interconnected growth, and shared interests.

  We reaffirm the value, centrality, and primacy of the multilateral trading system under the auspices of the World Trade Organization (WTO). We are committed to strengthening the rules-based, transparent, non-discriminatory, open, and inclusive multilateral trading system. To further reinforce our commitment on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the WTO, we have decided to issue a separate statement supporting the multilateral trading system and the 10th Ministerial Conference of the WTO.

  We reaffirm previous commitments on monetary and exchange rate policies. We will refrain from competitive devaluation and resist all forms of protectionism.

  We reiterate our commitment to achieve the Bogor Goals of free and open trade and investment by 2020 and to the eventual realization of the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). We appreciate the work by our officials to ensure that regional trade agreements complement and strengthen the multilateral trading system. We welcome the progress made by many APEC members in completing their respective processes to submit the instruments of acceptance to the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement, which will reduce the cost of trading across borders.

  While achieving ongoing economic transformation will not be easy, we are confident that we will continue to drive regional and global economic prosperity through quality economic growth.

  To this end, we collectively commit:

  Building Inclusive Economies

  1. To support comprehensive and ambitious structural reforms; achieve positive economic, social, and environmental outcomes; and promote good governance.

  a.        We reiterate our commitment to ensure that future growth is strong, balanced, sustainable, inclusive, driven by innovation, and secure against natural disasters and other threats. It should be supportive of gender equality. We remain alert to the risks of the “middle income trap.”

  b.        We adopt the APEC Strategy for Strengthening Quality Growth that will prioritize institution building, social cohesion, and environmental impact to give further focus to our efforts to pursue quality growth, building upon the commitments in the 2010 APEC Growth Strategy, and bearing in mind the commitments in the 2014 APEC Accord on Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth. We instruct officials to report, for our review, on APEC’s progress in promoting the APEC Strategy for Strengthening Quality Growth.

  c.        We welcome the assessment of the 2010 APEC Growth Strategy, especially the finding that more than 300 million people were lifted out of poverty in the APEC region, mainly due to rapid growth in developing economies. We support further efforts in narrowing the development gap in order to end poverty.

  d.        We commend the work done under the APEC New Strategy for Structural Reform and welcome the Renewed APEC Agenda for Structural Reform (RAASR). Promoting structural reform is critical to improving economic efficiency and increasing productivity. We recognize that much more remains to be done to ensure that growth is experienced at all levels of our communities. We therefore support economies in their efforts to explore new growth areas, including reforms aimed at further strengthening the services sector by fostering creativity and innovation through an enhanced regulatory environment.

  e.        We welcome the progress made on the Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) initiative and affirm the EoDB Action Plan (2016-2018) with a new aspirational target of a 10-percent improvement by 2018 in the existing five priority areas on starting a business, dealing with construction permits, trading across borders, getting credit, and enforcing contracts. We welcome the development of an Implementation Plan to guide our efforts to reach this target.

  f.        We reaffirm our commitment to implementing the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (“2030 Agenda”), which sets a comprehensive, universal, and ambitious framework for global development efforts for the next 15 years, and to ensuring that no one is left behind in our efforts to eradicate poverty and build an inclusive and sustainable future for all. We also reaffirm our commitment to implementing the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, which provides a comprehensive roadmap to help economies implement policies to attract and mobilize diverse sources of financing critical for the realization of the Sustainable Development Goals.

  g.        We encourage further progress and practical initiatives to carry out the 2013 mandate of exploring trade in products that contribute to sustainable and inclusive growth through rural development and poverty alleviation.

  h.        We recognize that corruption impedes economic sustainability and development and agree to combat the harmful effects of the illegal economy and to promote cultures of integrity across borders, markets, and supply chains. We reaffirm our commitment to open and accountable governance and to promoting international cooperation in the areas of repatriation or extradition of corrupt officials, asset recovery, criminalization, and prevention of corruption among APEC member-economies. We support the APEC Network of Anti-Corruption Authorities and Law Enforcement Agencies in advancing pragmatic anti-corruption cooperation and welcome the Cebu Manifesto for the Protection of Anti-Corruption Officials.

  i.        We welcome the efforts and activities that APEC members have undertaken to counter terrorism, including capacity-building initiatives to combat terrorist financing, and to prevent foreign terrorist fighter travel through advance passenger risk analysis and other measures. We further encourage economies to implement fully the APEC Consolidated Counter-Terrorism and Secure Trade Strategy and to continue taking collective and individual actions and sharing best practices to secure infrastructure, travel, supply chains, and financial systems from terrorist activities.

  2. To deepen our financial markets and mitigate risks.

  a.        We recognize that in spite of the progress we have made, millions of our citizens do not have access to reliable financial services, leaving them with insufficient access to capital to invest in their futures. We highlight the importance of financial inclusion and literacy to poverty alleviation, ensuring that our people can fully benefit from the access to cheaper capital and financing that comes with it.

  b.        We recognize that financial integration through moving towards more liberalized financial services and capital accounts, while maintaining adequate safeguards as well as increased access to finance for MSMEs and businesses in the supply chain, will foster greater trade and investment in the region.

  c.        We welcome the Cebu Action Plan (CAP) and commend our Finance Ministers for their collaborative efforts in crafting a multi-year roadmap of deliverables and initiatives to build an Asia-Pacific community that is more financially integrated, transparent, resilient, and connected. We emphasize the importance of macroeconomic cooperation including the sharing of experiences in macro-prudential policy frameworks to minimize systemic risks and promote financial stability in the APEC region.

  Fostering Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises’ Participation in Regional and Global Markets

  3. To foster an enabling trading environment that is responsive to new ways in which goods and services are produced and delivered and that promotes inclusiveness, especially for MSMEs.

  a.        We live in a connected world in which many goods and services are no longer produced in one location but are the result of firms cooperating within and across our borders. This benefits consumers, creates jobs, and fosters development. We need all our businesses, regardless of size, to connect to where opportunities exist. We need to develop policies that take full advantage of global value chains (GVC) and encourage greater participation and added value. We will promote competition, entrepreneurship, and innovation through effective and comprehensive measures, including balanced intellectual property (IP) systems and capacity-building.

  b.        We underscore the significance of the participation of MSMEs in global commerce to inclusive growth and will take action to facilitate such participation. We recognize that internationally-oriented MSMEs can make substantial contributions to poverty reduction through employment creation, productivity improvements, and economies of scale. However, because the costs of doing business impact disproportionately on our MSMEs, especially in terms of cumbersome rules and regulations, we need to address the barriers to their internationalization and integration into GVCs. Towards this end, we adopt the Boracay Action Agenda to Globalize MSMEs and instruct Ministers to implement actions laid out in the Agenda and report their progress to us by 2020.

  c.        We welcome the APEC Iloilo Initiative: Growing Global MSMEs for Inclusive Development, and support the creation of the APEC MSME Marketplace to provide opportunities for business and strengthen collaboration with public and private organizations to support MSME development. We also welcome progress in collaborative efforts to enhance GVC resilience in this region.

  d.        We recognize the importance of MSMEs’ access to finance as a key enabler of MSME expansion, internationalization, and productivity improvement. We welcome the commitment made by the private sector and international finance organizations to collaborate with the public sector through the recently launched Financial Infrastructure Development Network under the CAP. We emphasize the importance of promoting MSMEs’ resilience against disasters, financial crises, and other unexpected events. In addressing these challenges, we recognize the important role of public finance such as credit guarantee systems designed for MSME operational continuity and the importance of enhancing closer collaboration with relevant public and private sector institutions.

  e.        We emphasize opportunities that the internet and digital economy offers to achieve innovative, sustainable, inclusive, and secure growth, with a view to improving connectivity. The internet and digital economy will allow businesses, especially MSMEs, to participate in GVCs and reach a wider consumer base through new business models, creating a truly global market place for the exchange of goods, services, capital, and ideas. With regard to MSME development, we commit to continue to promote cross-border privacy, and to protect consumer interests. We instruct our officials to advance the work to facilitate the internet and digital economy. We also instruct officials to implement the Work Plan for Facilitating Digital Trade for Inclusive Growth as a Potential Next Generation Trade and Investment Issue.

  Building Sustainable and Resilient Communities

  4. To build sustainable and disaster-resilient economies.

  a.        We recognize that our region, located in the Pacific Ring of Fire, is particularly vulnerable and exposed to disasters. We face typhoons, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, rising sea levels, and pandemics, the impacts of which are magnified by our densely populated cities. It has become a “new normal” for us to face natural disasters of increasing frequency, magnitude and scope, and their resulting disruption of the increasingly integrated and interlinked production and supply chains.

  b.        We welcome and adopt the APEC Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Framework to facilitate collective work in building adaptive and disaster-resilient economies supporting inclusive and sustainable development in the face of the “new normal.” Through the APEC DRR Framework, we will minimize the losses we endure and ensure that our communities have the support to overcome adversity and to build back better. We instruct Ministers to craft an action plan in 2016 to operationalize the APEC DRR Framework and renew existing efforts such as business continuity planning, strengthening early warning systems, search and rescue, post-disaster recovery, promoting appropriate donations, and enhancing capacity building. We welcome the APEC Principles for the Movement of Humanitarian Goods and Equipment during Emergencies to better protect lives and livelihoods. We also note the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030.

  c.        We welcome Finance Ministers’ efforts to build financial resilience through the CAP, noting that this also entails developing innovative disaster risk financing and insurance mechanisms, in light of the heavy fiscal burden experienced by some economies due to the increasing damage of natural disasters.

  d.        We request the Chief Science Advisors and Equivalents to explore further the provision of coordinated scientific advice surrounding and during emergencies, in coordination with other relevant APEC fora.

  e.        We recognize that disaster resilience includes the ability to collaborate in detecting and preventing the spread of communicable disease. We welcome the development of the Healthy Asia-Pacific 2020 Roadmap. We welcome APEC’s working partnership with other relevant global initiatives for strengthening infectious disease control, and the training network established to ensure the safety of our region’s blood supply.

  f.        In line with our goal to promote sustainable communities, we are firmly committed to achieving a fair, balanced, ambitious, durable, and dynamic agreement on climate change at the Paris Climate Conference (COP21) in December. We therefore reaffirm our aspirational goals to reduce aggregate energy intensity by 45 percent by 2035 and double renewable energy in the regional energy mix by 2030 to achieve sustainable and resilient energy development within the Asia-Pacific.

  g.        We reaffirm our commitment to rationalize and phase out over the medium term inefficient fossil fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption while recognizing the importance of providing those in need with essential energy services. We welcome progress made to date while recognizing the need for further ambitious efforts to meet our goal. We express our appreciation to those economies who have volunteered to undergo a voluntary inefficient fossil fuel subsidy peer review. We welcome ongoing initiatives to share best practices and facilitate capacity building to further progress toward this goal.

  h.        We affirm the importance of energy resiliency in promoting energy security and sustainable development and in providing energy access. We commend the initiative of creating a Task Force on Energy Resiliency, the initiative for enhancing the quality of electric power infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region, and the establishment of the APEC Sustainable Energy Center. In transitioning to low-carbon economy, we will explore the contribution of biofuels, civil nuclear power as a base load power source, advanced coal technologies, liquefied natural gas, solar, wind, and marine energy technologies. We appreciate efforts towards a diversified, flexible, and integrated natural gas market in the APEC region.

  i.        We emphasize the need for improved sustainable agriculture, food security, food safety, and nutrition to build resilient communities across the region. We therefore instruct Ministers to implement the APEC High-Level Policy Dialogue on Food Security and Blue Economy Plan of Action in the areas of resilient oceans and coastal resources, fish loss reduction, and agri-business development. We support the APEC Food Safety Co-operation Forum and its Partnership Training Institute Network. We encourage progress on the APEC Food Security Roadmap toward 2020, to contribute to the achievement of APEC’s food security goal.

  j.        We recognize the important role of forests in supporting our communities, conserving biodiversity, and mitigating and adapting to climate change. We reaffirm our commitment to the aspirational goal in the Sydney Declaration of increasing forest cover in the region by at least 20 million hectares of all types of forests by 2020 and to promote sustainable forest management, conservation and rehabilitation, and combat illegal logging and associated trade. We welcome the report of assessment of progress towards the aspirational goal on forests in the Sydney Declaration.

  k.        Building on our commitments in previous years, we will take actions to combat wildlife trafficking and related corruption through further reducing illegal supply, transit, and demand; strengthening domestic and global enforcement, enhancing legislative frameworks, and other criminal justice tools; enhancing efforts in each of our economies to treat wildlife trafficking crime seriously; and increasing cross-border law enforcement cooperation and other interaction among wildlife enforcement networks as appropriate.

  5. To make urbanization work for growth.

  a.        Our cities are potential centers of creativity and innovation, providing jobs and livelihoods for billions of people. We emphasize the importance of proper planning and adequate infrastructure for sustainable city development. We therefore welcome the work of our officials to discuss the challenges of rapid urbanization in APEC, including innovative ways of addressing waste management and water-related challenges.

  b.        We remain committed to a new type of urbanization featuring green, energy-efficient, low-carbon, and people-oriented development. We commend the efforts of member economies in implementing the APEC Cooperation Initiative for Jointly Establishing an Asia-Pacific Urbanization Partnership. In this regard, we welcome China’s initiative to host an APEC high-level forum on urbanization in 2016. We encourage ongoing efforts in this direction toward energy efficient and low-carbon development in urban settings, including the implementation of the APEC Low-Carbon Model Town Project, use of green codes and standards for buildings, and the Energy Smart Communities Initiative.

  c.        We recognize that the region’s shifting demography, including ageing populations and urbanization, has profound implications for the region’s food system. We will enhance efforts to improve security and safety of the region’s food supply, sustainable agricultural and water management, and seek to increase citizens’ access to food including through better connectivity between urban, rural, and remote areas; facilitation of investment and infrastructure development; and reduction of food loss and waste along the food value chain.

  d.        At the same time, we acknowledge that our rural communities should not be left behind in the economic and social development of the region. In this regard, we are determined to make efforts to strengthen rural communities through sharing experiences of rural development, with a view to forging comprehensive strategies to eradicate poverty and enhance the welfare of rural communities in the region.

  e.        We commend efforts to develop safe, secure, resilient, efficient, and sustainable transportation systems, and to promote innovations in the transportation sector as we move towards achieving inclusive mobility and global supply chain resilience. We instruct our officials to continue to enhance their work on connectivity of transportation networks.

  Investing in Human Capital Development

  6. To redouble our efforts to empower our people with the tools to benefit from and participate in economic growth.

  a.        In 1996, we endorsed a framework for economic and technical cooperation to ensure that all APEC members can fully participate in and benefit from an open trading environment. We are pleased with the joint efforts and progress made in improving the delivery of capacity building and cross-fora collaboration among working groups and fora. We underscore the need to avoid the emergence of a divided community in the region - those connected to global markets benefitting from integration and those left behind being unable to realize their potential.

  b.        We emphasize the importance of investment in human capital through the development of skills that industry needs to effectively contribute to the next phase of our region’s economic growth. In the current environment characterized by the rapid and ubiquitous use of technology, our people, in particular women and youth, need to be equipped not only with technical skills in science, technology, and innovation but must also be adaptable and resilient. We therefore instruct our officials to work closely with businesses, education and training providers, employment services, and civil society to understand the skills needed by the industry and to develop education and training programs that will equip people with the skills and competencies to join the workforce and fulfill their potential.

  c.        We underscore the synergy between our ambition to improve human capital development and our goals to improve people-to-people connectivity and to continue the promotion of cross-border cooperation in education. We welcome the early realization of our 2020 student mobility target of 1 million intra-APEC university-level students per year. We also recognize the close correlation between human capital development and progress in ICT and its benefits.

  d.        We remain committed to advancing women’s full participation in the economy in concrete, actionable, and measureable ways, including through enhancement of women’s representation in leadership. We therefore call for strengthened efforts to support the mainstreaming of gender equality and women’s empowerment across APEC’s work streams, including the Women and the Economy Dashboard as a tool for identifying priorities for policy action.

  e.        We welcome the progress of APEC cooperation to enhance economic empowerment of persons with disabilities and encourage further collaboration among member economies in promoting inclusive development.

  f.        We recognize the importance of our health systems in promoting the development of human capital and inclusive growth and look forward to further work in 2016 to address the fiscal and economic impacts of ill-health.

  Enhancing the Regional Economic Integration Agenda

  7. To achieve our vision for an integrated community in a comprehensive and systematic manner.

  a.        We reaffirm our commitment to advance the process in a comprehensive and systematic manner towards the eventual realization of the FTAAP as a major instrument to further APEC’s regional economic integration agenda. We commend the progress made by our officials on the work on the implementation of the Beijing Roadmap for APEC’s Contribution to the Realization of the FTAAP, which includes the Collective Strategic Study on Issues Related to the Realization of the FTAAP, the Information Sharing Mechanism, and the 2nd Capacity Building Needs Initiative (CBNI). We instruct Ministers and officials to continue this work and, in particular, we look forward to receiving the findings and accompanying recommendations of the Collective Strategic Study when we meet again next year in Peru.

  b.        We reiterate our belief that the FTAAP should be pursued as a comprehensive free trade agreement by building on ongoing regional undertakings. We also reaffirm our vision contained in the Pathways to FTAAP that it should be high-quality and incorporate and address next generation trade and investment issues. In this connection, we note the recent development on the free trade agreements in the region and the progress of the possible Pathways to the FTAAP, including the finalization of Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) negotiations, and we encourage the early completion of negotiations for Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).

  c.        We reaffirm the commitment we made in 2012 to reduce our applied tariffs on the APEC List of Environmental Goods to five per cent or less by the end of this year. We congratulate those economies that are on track to fulfill this ground-breaking commitment and strongly urge those that have yet to fully implement this commitment to redouble efforts to meet the end of the year deadline.

  d.        We welcome the progress that has been made under the work streams of the APEC Strategic Blueprint for Promoting Global Value Chain Development and Cooperation and instruct officials to further develop this work.

  e.        We reaffirm our commitment to achieve a seamlessly and comprehensively integrated, innovative, and interconnected Asia-Pacific. We welcome progress implementing the APEC Connectivity Blueprint for 2015-2025 under the pillars of physical, institutional and people-to-people connectivity. We will take further action to ensure continued implementation of this Blueprint and to promote regional and sub-regional connectivity in the Asia-Pacific region.

  f.        We appreciate progress in implementation of initiatives which will greatly improve connectivity and infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region, and progress of the initiatives which help resolve the bottleneck of financing in this field. We encourage further collaboration among these initiatives in order to promote regional economic integration and the common development of the Asia-Pacific.

  g.        We emphasize the importance of investment in quality infrastructure and connectivity to realize our vision for an Asia-Pacific community. We welcome the initiatives set out by the CAP to maximize the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) modality for infrastructure delivery, to tap long-term investments for infrastructure through capital market development, and to continue efforts in inclusive infrastructure, in urban development, and in regional connectivity.

  8. To develop the services sector as an enabler of economic growth and inclusion.

  a.        We acknowledge that international trade in services facilitates cross-border business activity, reduces costs, spurs innovation, boosts competition and productivity, raises the standard of domestic services suppliers, and widens the range of choice for consumers. We also acknowledge that trade in services has an enormous potential for creating jobs, and for increasing competitiveness in the global market, providing whole-of-economy benefits. Inclusive growth cannot be achieved without addressing services-related issues, as many MSMEs operate in this sector.

  b.        For these reasons, we endorse the APEC Services Cooperation Framework to ensure that all our citizens can benefit from and contribute to high quality growth. We instruct our officials to develop a strategic and long-term Services Competitiveness Roadmap in 2016 with the adoption of a concerted set of actions and mutually agreed targets to be achieved by 2025. We appreciate services-related initiatives such as manufacturing-related services.

  Strengthening Collaboration

  9. To work with stakeholders to address common challenges.

  a.        Given our diversity, our achievements thus far in APEC provide a benchmark for how, through cooperation, we can advance regional economic integration and achieve shared prosperity. Building on our achievements, we commit to engage in an enhanced degree of cooperation within and across our economies with a broad range of stakeholders. We reaffirm the need to have a well-coordinated and whole-of-government approach to rulemaking in our economies. This should rely on open and inclusive public consultation processes involving the full range of domestic and international stakeholders.

  b.        We therefore welcome our increased collaboration with the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC), the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC), international and regional organizations, the private sector, local government executives, civil society, academia, MSMEs, women, youth, persons with disabilities, and industry experts, engaging in constructive dialogues that allow us to find solutions to the challenges we face and build a better, more inclusive world.

  10. To strongly support the work of our Ministers, the APEC Process, and all its Committees and Fora.

  a.        We therefore endorse the 2015 APEC Joint Ministerial Statement and commend the work of our Ministers and officials as reflected in the results of the Sectoral Ministerial Meetings, High-Level Policy Dialogues, the Finance Ministers’ Process, the Committees and Working Groups of the Senior Officials’ Meeting, and all related mechanisms.

  b.        We instruct our Ministers and officials to continue their work, including implementation of the recommendations, work programs, and action plans of the outcome documents for 2015 sectoral ministerial meetings and high-level policy dialogues, bearing in mind the vision contained in this Declaration, as well as our previous meetings.

  c.        We express our appreciation for the contributions by relevant members to the APEC Fund, the establishment of Sub-Funds on the Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific and Global Value Chains, Innovative Development, Economic Reform and Growth, and Connectivity, and Mining, and the voluntary provision of training opportunities to developing economy members. We look forward to future work to better align our resources with our priorities.

  Through economic integration driven by technological progress, urbanization, trade and investment liberalization and facilitation, and improved connectivity, our lives have become increasingly intertwined. It is incumbent upon all of us to work together to ensure our common destiny. In spite of the challenges we face, the future of our region will be bright as we stand true to our pledge to shape the future through Asia-Pacific partnership, with a view to fulfilling our goals of common development, prosperity, and progress, by harnessing our people’s collective abilities in the spirit of mutual respect and trust, inclusiveness, and win-win cooperation.

  Recognizing that APEC work is a continuing process and that continuity of agenda is key to APEC's relevance, we thank the Philippines for its leadership this year as it has built on the vision and work of the previous APEC hosts.

  We look forward to meeting again in Peru in 2016 and will work closely with the future hosts from 2017 to 2022, namely Viet Nam, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, and Thailand. We welcome the offer of the Republic of Korea to host APEC in 2025.

  Annex A: APEC Strategy for Strengthening Quality Growth

  Annex B: APEC Services Cooperation Framework